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Sukses dimulai dari pelaksanaan tapi bukan dari perencanaan. Bukti terbaik jika Anda berdoa adalah Anda bertindak. Berperilakulah lebih besar dari pada masalah Anda. Cara bereaksi seseorang menentukan kelas seseorang. Pegangan yang paling baik adalah orang yang Anda cintai dan mencintai Anda


Sunday, 30 June 2013

Unnes Half-Hearted With Conservation

Imagine Unnes as conservation campus filled with lots of trees and make a variety of things with recycled materials or energy efficient. But, a lot of things with the lack of measures taken by officials in Unnes. Many things have improved and gave a brilliant idea or innovation to provide solutions to the existing drawback in Unnes. Unnes distributed in each UAS KRS (Study Plan Card), KRS has been printed and later as a requirement in the following UAS. In fact, the KRS KRS is useless because it is not in check or UAS checked by the supervisor, should have been listed in the KRS Sikadu (Integrated Academic System) and later can be easily accessed by students. In this way will save the use of paper and Unnes can help to reduce the impact of global warming. If students in the KRS Unnes get a lot of paper to be used and will manambah dangers of global warming, when students can go online and KRS displayed in Sikadu in this way will reduce paper usage. One more unique than kebiakan Unnes namely the implementation SBMPTN (Joint Selection Entrance State University) all citizens Unnes including SBMPTN participants could enter the vehicle to enter into the campus environment Unnes that should not be, the implementation SBMPTN lasted for four days. When it was done as it continues then raises the thought of people who make policy Unnes that is inconsistent with this policy. There is a better idea to make the implementation go smoothly without any violation of the measures taken. Unnes bus should remain helte walks and in every direction or the instructions given as a security guard or a student with an interest to direct participants to explain the plan SBMPTN okasi Unnes which are explained in detail as well as the venue. Involving all parties to carry out an activity without damaging kebijaan it more beautiful. Students like students involved in the Student Association, Student Representative Council, and the Student Executive Board. Students should be engaged to mennyukseskan with proficiency level policy. Unnes way that could be dubbed the University campus is essential conservation.

Road Unnes In Conservation

Lonely, lonely, without any passing vehicles on the road indicates that the passage of the conservation policies that negate vehicles into the campus environment Unnes. Of course, every guest who comes will be confused about the way mesuk into place that will be addressed. Guests usually ask the security guards who keep in their posts. The guard would reply if you want to point the answer will be given away rotate further doubled. So, when entered in the Setup area Unnes sebaikknya do before entering in Unnes, at least before doing exercise or taking supplements later let the body when walking or log in Unnes region does not faint or tired. Keep the conditions before entering the area Unnes. But, when entered in the vehicle Unnes will feel adrenaline with a different, call it on the road that goes to the Rector, Auditorium, Office PKM University, and the University BEM. The road leading to the venue will be made along the way are different because ditumubuhi trees that obstruct or endanger the road users to cross the road proficiency level. The road is located alongside the fence and still go dikawan Unnes Unnes, the road is made so that the JV could masu-rang, because of the way when viewed from the main road does not seem that there is a vehicle coming. That's because the road is made on the ground. Also confirmed when the entry road will pass the driver's license practices. Because the road to driver's license practice held at the local police station. It's very unique when students enter the path will be pampered with a winding road like a test SIM, the profits could be used to study the practice of students mendapatka SIM. And after graduating from Unnes can open a practice to teach the people to pass the driver's license exam. But, it seems Unnes inconsistent with the way in wake. One path was made with no trees that surround the jalannan, besides that there is a smooth road with no interference when passing. Unnes should be uniform so that later made its way over Unnes actually indicates that conservation campus. So smooth road is overgrown by trees which hinders the right road users passing. When people see the streets full of Unnes yan trees must think Unnes conservation has become a campus that truly uphold conservation. When Unnes do not like it for sure people are still confused whether that is college Unnes conservation?. Funny and unique look when done anything like that. But failing to do so will lead to differences in the creator's lack of consistent policy is. Hard indeed to make policy expected by the people, but do not harm the people tesebut express his heart's content with writing like this.

Wednesday, 26 June 2013

Material Flow Speed ​​Measurement Reports and Debit

CHAPTER IINTRODUCTION1.1 BackgroundIn the management of water resources with water building design required an information that shows the amount of water going into the building in a unit of time known as the discharge of the magnitude aliran.Informasi river flow help in designing buildings with regard to the discharge peak (flood) necessary for flood control and the design of the building is also seen from the minimum required discharge data for water use, especially in the season kemarau.Sehingga with the control of water flow data is either in a state of excess or less had to be taken into account in an effort to reduce the impact of flooding at the time of discharge maximum and drought or water deficit during the dry season panjang.Oleh Therefore, in this study lab streamflow measurements to obtain information on the amount of water flowing in a river at a certain time.1.2 ObjectivesThe purpose of this lab is to measure the river flow in Cikuda with buoyancy and current meter method.

CHAPTER IILITERATURE REVIEW2.1 Debit FlowIs the rate of flow of water (in the form of volume of water) that passes a stream cross section per unit magnitude debti time.In the SI system is measured in cubic meters per second (m3/sec). Whereas in technical reports, usually indicated flow in the form of a hydrograph aliran.Hidrograf aliranadalah discharge behavior in response to changes that take place in the biophysical characteristics of a watershed by the watershed management activities and / or a change (seasonal or annual fluctuations) local climate.2.2 Measurement DebitDirect flow measurement techniques in the field can basically be done through four categories (Gordon et al., 1992):1. Measurement of the volume of river water2. Debiut measurement by measuring the flow rate and determine the cross-sectional area rivers.3. Discharge measurements by using chemicals (dyes) which flowed in streams (substance tracing method).4. Measurement of discharge by making buildings as weir flow measurement (slow flow) or flume (fast flow).In the second category of discharge measurements, the discharge measurements with the help of gauge or current meter discharge measurements are often known as the approach velocity-area method most widely used and applicable to most of the river flow. Current meter is a tool associated with propeller-shaped box recorder (monitor that will record the number of laps for the propeller in the water) and then inserted into the stream to be measured velocity tail alirannya.Bagian the tool shaped like a fin rotates due to the movement of water lairan sunagi.Kecepatan lairan water will be determined by the number of revolutions per second is then calculated to be presented in the monitor average speed of water flow during the time interval tetentu .. Measurements were made by dividing the depth of the river into sections with leber berbeda.Kecepatan surface flow in the river each section was measured according to the measurement kedalaman.Ketentuan presented in the following table.
Where d is the depth of the riverOnce the speed of the flow and the extent obtained, river flow can be calculated using the following equation.Q = A VWhere Q is discharge (m3/sec)V is the velocity (m / sec)A river is the area (m2)

In measuring streamflow note numbers mean flow velocity, stream width, depth, slope, and shear sungai.Geseran tepid and base edge and the riverbed will reduce flow velocity at the center of the largest and the smallest at the bottom sungai.Faktor important Other Noteworthy is the hydraulic radius r (hydraulic radius).R = A / Wpwhere: A cross-sectional area (m2)Wp = circumference basahan (wetted perimeter)

Way other than by using a measurement tool Current meters, the river flow velocity measurements can also be done using floating (floating method). Trick with placing objects that can not be drowned in the river surface to a certain distance and record the time required by the floating object moving from one observation point to another observation point that has been floating ditentukan.Benda used in this measurement is basically any object can sapanjang sungai.Pemilihan floating in a stream where measurements should be on the river with not much current relatiflurus not beraturan.Jarak between the two observation points required is determined at least that gives the travel time for 20 detik.Pengukuran do some Klai so as to obtain an average speed of surface streams with the following equation.Vper = L / tWhere: L = the distance between the two points of observation (m)t = travel time floaters (seconds)

CHAPTER IIIMETHODOLOGY3.1 Equipment and MaterialsTools and materials used in this lab are as follows:1. Current meter2. Stopwatch3. Meter4. Rope5. Bamboo or cane scale6. Pencil7. Paper8. Objects that can float3.2 Proceduresa. Practical implementation of this procedure for the measurement kecevatan streams using current meter tool are as follows:1. measuring dimensions of the river covering a wide river, and the width of the river into segments depending on the state of the river.2. calculate the depth of a river with a stick-scale3. place the current meter gauge at certain depths corresponding water depth (see table 1)4. using a stopwatch, calculate the speed of the river through the numbers displayed in the monitor current meter. Long recording time is 1 minute.5. Repeat up to three times of measurement.6. Perform measurements on segments, ie segments 2 and 37. Calculate the speed of the average river flow at each measurement segment by summing the value of his observations.8. Calculate by multiplying streamflow sectional area of ​​a river with an average flow speed of the river.b. River flow velocity measurement procedure with floating method (floating method) is as follows:1. Measure the length of the river with a meter that will be used as the path length of the river benda.Jarak or at least give the travel time for 20 seconds.2. Drop objects can float at the observation point 1 and the start time dihitung.Hentikan timekeeper when the object has reached a point of observation 2.3. Record the time taken by the object.4. Observe the minimum number of times the experiment three times5. Calculate the average time it takes the object during trial.6. Calculate the speed of the river flow by multiplying the distance between the observation point with the average travel time rata.Kemudian multiply the flow rate with a constant rate of 0.75 (rough river bed conditions).7. Calculated by multiplying the broad river discharge and river flow rates obtained from the calculation in step 6.

CHAPTER IVRESULTS AND DISCUSSION4.1 Resultsa. Calculation of cross-sectional area rivers

Extensive A1 = 0.5 (3 x 2.8) = 4.2 m2Broad AII = 3 x 2.8 = 8.4 m2Broad AIII = 0.5 (3 x 2.8) = 4.2 m2The total area of ​​the river = 16.8 m2b. The experimental results with the method of floating methodNo.
Time (second)
Length of river (m)
Speedm / s
1.27Calculation:Q = V x A = (0.75 x 1.27 m / s) x 16.8 m2Q = 16.002 m3 / sCalculation:Q = A x V = 16.8 m2 x 0.53 m / sQ = 8.90 m3 / s4.2 Discussion

Streamflow measurements made at the lab using two methods, namely floating (floating method) and use tools meter.Berdasarkan current data and the calculation of the two methods produce different discharges that much difference between the two reached 7,101 m3/s.Tentunya case The second dikarena discharge measurements obtained from two berbeda.Dalam means in practice many factors that lead to inaccuracies in the calculation of river flow.

On the methods of measuring floating, irregular stream characteristics, both in terms of depth, flow velocity and heavy, making it difficult medn practitioner in determining the exact location for pengukuran.Hasil lab using the floating method is obtained relative velocity with a constant difference, ie 1m / s but the last measurement changed significantly, the speed is much slower than the previous perngukuran, ie the measurement of the third object observations obtained two rivers flow velocity reaches 0.92 m / s which is much smaller in a row at 0.37 ; 0.55 from observations 2 and 1 with objects such sama.Hal aliaran due to irregular water so the occasional object floating on the surface of the flow of the river basin trapped by the currents that travel from the observation of objects 1 and 2 is not smooth resulting latency is much of observation as a tool lain.Penggunaan objects floating in the river also needs diperhatikan.Hasil observations between objects 1 and 2, which have different sizes lead to differences in flow velocity in the observation dapatnya.Pada get 1 objects whose size is smaller than the object 2 turned out to have an average speed greater than 2 objects which are larger in size, the average speed of object 1 reaches 1.32 m / s, while the pace of objects mencapai1 2, 22 m / s, there is a difference that reaches 1, 1 m / s.Selain it also, at least according to the reference object observation distance to reach the end point of observation takes 20 detik.Namun lab results there is only one observation that reach more than 20 seconds remaining less than 20 seconds, it also objects reaches more than 20 seconds due to trapped in the whirlpool so latency becomes more lama.Dengan Thus, the observation distance was 22 m was still lacking for some observations on the state of the river flow velocity of the river flow, so that the data obtained were less accurate.

Unlike his thing with the floating method, method of discharge measurement by current meter of water is more difficult penggunaannya.Pengukuran water flow rate is not as simple as floating method, in this method, the depth of the river to be a determinant in the measurement, but it is also the river should be divided into several parts to get average speed of the flow of the river at the edge and tengah.Sehingga before the observation needs to pay attention to several things, the main thing is the depth of the river, but it also flows should not be obstructed by an object or a rock is blocking because it would affect the outcome pengamatan.Hasil observations indicate river flow velocity in the middle of a larger segment of propagators on the left edge and kanan.Dari observations 1 through 3 in most of the middle segment, which ranged from 0.7 to 0.8, while on the left and right river flow reaches a maximum speed of 0.5 m / s.Hal is because at the center of the relatively smooth surface of the water ssehingga essentially unobstructed journey, it is different to the one on the edge of the lot was blocked bebatuan.Faktor-factors that can reduce the accuracy of the observed data is the limited equipment available so that the determination of the point of observation terhamabat by large currents, surface irregular riverbed disabling carefully situations in depth calculation air.Namun Thus, when compared with the results of observations with the floating method, the method proved more accurate current meter with results observations are far jebih tiny.Moreover also use the tool well enough to mengghindari various errors in the measurement compared with the method apung.Debit stream obtained from both observations based methods using current meter floating and can be used as the information is very important in the design waterworks.CHAPTER VCLOSING5.1 Conclusion

Based on observations in the River Cikuda Jatinagor can be summarized as follows:1. River flow by measuring the buoyancy method of 16.002 m3 / s.2. River flow is based on measurements using current meters at 8.90 m3 / s.3. River flow measurement using current meter is more accurate than the floating method.5.2 Suggestions

On the measurement of river flow by buoyancy method should be assessed on the effect of dimensional objects are used and should be tried before the observations were made beforehand how objects travel time from a certain distance to be able to determine the distance of qualified observations, the travel time of at least 20 objects detik.Untuk measurements with a current meter measurements place to note that current is not blocked by stones or other objects so that the speed actually measured the speed of the river flow.

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Saturday, 22 June 2013

Examples of Open Channel Hydraulics Reports

1. background
To calculate water discharge channel can be used several types of barriers, while its field application in the field wide threshold is widely used in irrigation channels, whose function is to determine the discharge of water flowing in the channel
2. Aims and Objectives
Calculate the flow rate of the speed and volume of the irrigation channel / channel open.
a. Float / ball Pimpong
b. Ruler / tape measure
c. Stop wacth
d. Current Meter (Flowatch)

the irrigation canal / channel is open, the flow rates can be calculated calculates flow rate and the channel cross-sectional area wet. Irrigation flow rate can be calculated with a mathematical formula:

With: v = velocity of flow (m / t)
S = length of the flow being simulated (m)
t = time of fluid from the starting point to the end point along the S (sec)

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Sunday, 9 June 2013

Calculation of Data Polygons

For group 2 requiring civil engineering survey data for the calculation of the polygon.

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